Immune cells make appendix 'silent hero' of digestive health
Published Nov 30, 2015 - 9:34:14 AM
New research shows a network of immune cells helps the appendix to play a pivotal role in maintaining the health of the digestive system, supporting the theory that the appendix isn't a vestigial -- or redundant -- organ.
Unexpected activity on the Moon
Published Nov 30, 2015 - 9:31:31 AM
The Swedish space instrument SARA has measured a strong and varied interaction between the Moon and solar wind. The solar wind is a continuous flow of plasma from the Sun which affects the planets in the Solar System and contributes to causing aurora on Earth.
DNA repair factor linked to breast cancer may also play a role in Alzheimer's disease
Published Nov 30, 2015 - 9:19:18 AM
Mutant forms of breast cancer factor 1 (BRCA1) are associated with breast and ovarian cancers but according to new findings, in the brain the normal BRCA1 gene product may also be linked to Alzheimer's disease. The results, published in Nature Communications, suggest that low levels of BRCA1 protein in the brain may contribute to dementia. The study was funded by the National Institutes of Health.
Climate Macroscope: New Software for Finding Tipping Points and Critical Network Structures
Published Nov 30, 2015 - 9:15:33 AM
If you wanted to know whether shifts in the African climate during Paleolithic times correlated with the appearance and disappearance of hominin species, how would you find the answer? It’s a tricky question because of the massive amounts of noisy, complicated data you would need to analyze.
5400mph Winds Discovered Hurtling Around Planet Outside Solar System
Published Nov 30, 2015 - 9:12:17 AM
Winds of over 2km per second have been discovered flowing around planet outside of the Earth’s solar system, new research has found.
The University of Warwick discovery is the first time that a weather system on a planet outside of Earth’s solar system has been directly measured and mapped.
Decarbonizing tourism: Would you pay US$11 for a carbon-free holiday?
Published Nov 24, 2015 - 10:42:01 AM
The damaging effects of CO2 emissions from tourism could eventually be eliminated if travelers paid just US$11 per trip, according to a new study published in the Journal of Sustainable Tourism.
Mars to lose its largest moon, Phobos, but gain a ring
Published Nov 24, 2015 - 9:25:50 AM
Mars' largest moon, Phobos, is slowly falling toward the planet, but rather than smash into the surface, it likely will be shredded and the pieces strewn about the planet in a ring like the rings encircling Saturn, Jupiter, Uranus and Neptune.
Common pigeon: Not just a bird brain, but a brainy bird
Published Nov 23, 2015 - 9:49:40 AM
If pigeons went to medical school and specialized in pathology or radiology, they'd be pretty good at distinguishing digitized microscope slides and mammograms of normal vs. cancerous breast tissue, a new study from researchers at the University of California, Davis and The University of Iowa has found.
1 in 3 Two-Year-Olds in the U.S. Have Not Received All Recommended Childhood Vaccines, Study Finds
Published Nov 18, 2015 - 9:34:58 AM
Approximately 34 percent of children in the United States do not receive all doses of vaccines recommended by the Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices (ACIP) by age 2, according to a new study by researchers at RTI Health Solutions, a business unit of RTI International.
Researchers find link between air pollution and heart disease
Published Nov 18, 2015 - 9:26:43 AM
Researchers from the Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health have found a link between higher levels of a specific kind of air pollution in major urban areas and an increase in cardiovascular-related hospitalizations such as for heart attacks in people 65 and older.
Moderate coffee drinking may lower risk of premature death
Published Nov 17, 2015 - 8:18:03 AM
People who drink about three to five cups of coffee a day may be less likely to die prematurely from some illnesses than those who don't drink or drink less coffee, according to a new study by Harvard T.H. Chan School of Public Health researchers and colleagues. Drinkers of both caffeinated and decaffeinated coffee saw benefits, including a lower risk of death from cardiovascular disease, neurological diseases, type 2 diabetes, and suicide.
Study is first to map Earth's hidden groundwater
Published Nov 16, 2015 - 11:05:14 AM
Groundwater: it's one of the planet's most exploited, most precious natural resources. It ranges in age from months to millions of years old. Around the world, there's increasing demand to know how much we have and how long before it's tapped out.
Study: Earth's climate more sensitive to CO2 than previously thought
Published Nov 16, 2015 - 10:41:07 AM
A team of Binghamton University researchers including geology PhD student Elliot A. Jagniecki and professors Tim Lowenstein, David Jenkins and Robert Demicco examined nahcolite crystals found in Colorado's Green River Formation, formed 50 million years old during a hothouse climate. They found that CO2 levels during this time may have been as low as 680 parts per million (ppm), nearly half the 1,125 ppm predicted by previous experiments. The new data suggests that past predictions significantly underestimate the impact of greenhouse warming and that Earth's climate may be more sensitive to increased carbon dioxide than was once thought, said Lowenstein.
Four Months after Pluto Flyby, NASA’s New Horizons Yields Wealth of Discovery
Published Nov 9, 2015 - 11:36:34 AM
From possible ice volcanoes to twirling moons, NASA’s New Horizons science team is discussing more than 50 exciting discoveries about Pluto at this week’s 47th Annual Meeting of the American Astronomical Society’s Division for Planetary Sciences in National Harbor, Maryland.
Farming on Mars? The Martian Raises Questions About Soil
Published Nov 9, 2015 - 9:06:47 AM
In the recent sci-fi hit, The Martian, the main character, astronaut Mark Watney (played by Matt Damon), manages to grow potatoes on the planet with a mix of ingenuity, science, and a bit of Hollywood make-believe. Could it work?
Poor air quality increases patients' risk of heart attack, new study finds
Published Nov 9, 2015 - 9:04:21 AM
People with heart disease face an increased risk of a serious heart attack during poor air quality days, according to a major new study presented today at the American Heart Association Scientific Session in Orlando.
Experiment records extreme quantum weirdness
Published Nov 9, 2015 - 8:52:29 AM
Researchers from the Centre for Quantum Technologies (CQT) at the National University of Singapore and the University of Seville in Spain have reported the most extreme 'entanglement' between pairs of photons ever seen in the lab. The result was published 30 October 2015 in Physical Review Letters.
The past shows how abrupt climate shifts affect Earth
Published Nov 9, 2015 - 8:46:36 AM
New research shows how past abrupt climatic changes in the North Atlantic propagated globally. The study, led by researchers from Centre for Ice and Climate at the University of Copenhagen's Niels Bohr Institute, shows how interaction between heat transport in the ocean and the atmosphere caused the climatic changes to be expressed in different ways across the Southern Hemisphere. The results shows how forcing the climate system into a different state can trigger climate variations that spread globally and have very different impacts in different regions of Earth. This is important now, where rising atmospheric CO2 levels lead to global warming and may trigger abrupt climatic changes. The results have been published in the scientific journal Nature Geoscience.
NASA mission reveals speed of solar wind stripping Martian atmosphere
Published Nov 6, 2015 - 10:23:58 AM
NASA's Mars Atmosphere and Volatile Evolution (MAVEN) mission has identified the process that appears to have played a key role in the transition of the Martian climate from an early, warm and wet environment that might have supported surface life to the cold, arid planet Mars is today.
The largest to have existed - giant rat fossils
Published Nov 6, 2015 - 10:15:43 AM
Archaeologists with The Australian National University (ANU) have discovered fossils of seven giant rat species on East Timor, with the largest up to 10 times the size of modern rats.
New study finds some chemicals less damaging to ozone layer can degrade to long-lived greenhouse gases
Published Nov 3, 2015 - 11:32:56 AM
Some substitutes for ozone-damaging chemicals being phased out worldwide under international agreements are themselves potent greenhouse gases and contribute to warming. Now, a new study published Nov. 2 in Geophysical Research Letters, a publication of the American Geophysical Union, shows for the first time how some of those replacement chemicals can break down in the atmosphere to form a greenhouse gas that can persist for millennia, much longer than the substitute chemicals themselves.
Risk assessment, for the birds
Published Nov 3, 2015 - 10:18:17 AM
Every year, backyard songbirds across the United States make an arduous journey to warmer winter climes. They migrate hundreds of miles, occasionally braving tough terrain and nasty weather. Sometimes, they have no place to stop and refuel along the way.
Scientists map source of Northwest’s next big quake
Published Nov 2, 2015 - 11:05:31 AM
A large team of scientists has nearly completed the first map of the mantle under the tectonic plate that is colliding with the Pacific Northwest and putting Seattle, Portland and Vancouver at risk of the largest earthquakes and tsunamis in the world.
Vitamin D pill a day may improve exercise performance and lower risk of heart disease
Published Nov 2, 2015 - 10:06:35 AM
Taking vitamin D supplements can improve exercise performance and lower the risk of heart disease, according to the findings of a preliminary study presented today at the Society for Endocrinology annual conference in Edinburgh.
Researchers discover new way to measure if a person is pre-diabetic
Published Nov 2, 2015 - 9:59:55 AM
A panel of markers have been discovered that helps identify if a person is pre-diabetic by measuring the fatty acids in their blood. This discovery by University of Hawai'i Cancer Center researchers may allow physicians to warn patients years before the onset of diabetes, therefore allowing them to change their lifestyle patterns potentially avoiding the diagnosis of a chronic disease.
Technique for analyzing bedrock could help builders, planners identify safe building zones
Published Oct 30, 2015 - 7:35:36 AM
Research by a UCLA geologist and colleagues could give builders and urban planners more detailed information about how susceptible areas are to landslides and earthquakes.
Lotion ingredient paraben may be more potent carcinogen than thought
Published Oct 29, 2015 - 10:18:43 AM
A controversial group of chemicals commonly found in lotions and other personal care products may be more dangerous at low doses than previously thought, according to a new study.
Researchers model birth of universe in one of largest cosmological simulations ever run
Published Oct 29, 2015 - 9:31:05 AM
Researchers are sifting through an avalanche of data produced by one of the largest cosmological simulations ever performed, led by scientists at the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) Argonne National Laboratory.
Halloween asteroid gives us a miss, confirms ESA
Published Oct 28, 2015 - 9:08:51 AM
An asteroid four times the size of a football pitch will miss Earth on All Hallows’ Eve. The flyby highlights the need to watch for space rocks.
Halloween, according to some, is a time to be afraid, but no one need fear asteroid 2015 TB145, an object some 400 m across that will pass safely by at around 17:00 GMT (18:00 CET) on 31 October.
Mother-of-Pearl’s Genesis Identified in Mineral’s Transformation
Published Oct 27, 2015 - 11:02:16 AM
How nature makes its biominerals — things like teeth, bone and seashells — is a playbook scientists have long been trying to read.
Among the most intriguing biominerals is nacre, or mother-of-pearl — the silky, iridescent, tougher-than-rock composite that lines the shells of some mollusks and coats actual pearls. The material has been worked by humans for millennia to make everything from buttons and tooth implants to architectural tile and inlay for furniture and musical instruments.